NTFS, FAT32, exFAT, ext4 and APFS are just some of the file systems used to organize data on storage drives. This video outlines the differences between these and other file systems, and explains how to choose between them.

You may also be interested in some of my other videos, including:

Explaining PCIe Slots:

Explaining RAM:

More videos on computing topics can be found on the ExplainingComputers channel:

You may also like my other channel, ExplainingTheFuture, at:

#FileSystems #NTFS #exFAT #FAT32 #ExplainingComputers

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mbonu chinedu June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

Thanks for this information

Chris Schembari June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

4:55 a Linux distro running the latest kernel version (5.4) has native exfat support.
Fun fact: There's a new bootable USB flash drive creator called Ventoy that lets you use the drive's full capacity by storing your ISO files on an exfat partition. No more wasting, for example, a 32 GB flash drive by burning it with a 2.5 GB ISO.

james Tolliver June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

I kept having issues trying to transfer large files between my two linux computers because i didnt know about the 4gb limitation on my fat32 usb drive. Watching your video to just casually learn more has actually helped me with an issue ive been having for a while, thank you.

Jarrod C June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

so are you saying that if I had a folder that was greater than 4GB such as 8GB, I would have to break up the folder into two folders each at 4GB each? something like this was not covered and should be covered. Becuase folders can contain subfolders and such. YOu can have multiple hard drives on an operating system, things like this are not covered.

Jarrod C June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

i wish you went into more depth about while file formatting is important and why it is used and why there are variants…it was barely touched upon in the beginning. really i think it misses the mark of the video, the video describes the capablilites of different file systems, but the fact that formatting is used and why it is used i feel is more important. Such as why are drives divided up into clusters in the first place, and also differentiating between file size and volume sizes, which was practically non existant. I guess you were assuming that we would understand the difference betwen file and volume size….correct me if i am wrong, but file size limit is the limit on individiual self contained files? but then what defines a file size? is a file size defined as anything contained in a folder? a proper definition of what a file is is very much needed. are files and software programs treated the same? a lot was missing from this video.

Love Kush June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

Data Servers Use REFS

rec June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

You're 30 years too old for this haircut my friend.

Peter Parker June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

youtube legend

Adan Calderon June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

What is crazy is requiring FAT32 for secureboot and/or uefi when you can't have files bigger than 4 gb.

Bandicoot803 June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

If you try to format a >32GB drive with FAT32, Microsoft limits the partition size to max. 32GB due to "technical reasons". Well, that a big FAT lie! Linux doesn't impose any limitations upon formatting a >32GB frive with FAT32! In reality, Microsoft forces you to solely use their NTFS to overcome their limitation of 32GB partition size.

GParted under Debian has been a great help, and will always surpass anything else out there!

FirstName LastName June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

"16 Exabytes, or effectively unlimited" Can't wait to look back on this and just think, we really thought 16 exabytes was alot.
It's just as funny whenever reading system architecture books and seeing "Since it support up to one gigabyte of ram, it practically doesn't have any restrains"

intel386DX June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

4:40 * NFTS
6:19 * HSF

Alex Landherr June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

When I’m using an NTFS external drive on a Mac, I have to use a “translation program” so that I can freely read and write to it. It’s useful as some file downloading software I need only run on MacOS and I haven’t been able to set up a VM with a USB pass through so that I can use my software.

Uropig June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

The wining noise in the background is distracting

Herman Wooster June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

I have found EXFAT to work great on Linux! It required only one terminal line to install the driver and that was that. Easy and worked between Windows and Linux. If you're working with larger files, you can't go wrong with it.

A.J. Bonnema June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

I did miss btrfs. It had some trouble with full disks when it started, but I wonder what the state of the art is with respect to BTRFS. I you ever look at filesystems again, or find any other excuse to use btrfs, could you have a look at it?
P.S. I vaguely remember btrfs being standard for ubuntu, but as I run fedora, I am not sure. My filesystem has been ext4 for a long time now and won't change until I get a new computer and have to do a fresh install.

Crawling in Film June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

At 6.18 – slide “HFS, HFS+ & APFS” has typos “HSF+” and “HSF Extended” in its main text

Nicky Scarola June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

Big companies have to unify file system, or let the user decide which one to use. Windows don´t recognize hfs, Apple don´t recognize NTFS, and so on. It´s a childish dispute.

CaptainStarkiller June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

This video makes me think there should be an open source file system that becomes an industry standard.

oogrooq June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

Best hair on the internet.

Nachiket Gohil June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

Please help me to choose Which type of format should I use to format 1Tb external HDD, that can be used without any risk in windows n ubuntu..

cubu June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

how the heck does HFS mean MACos?

Braulio Pimenta June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

What about XFS? What is your experience with it?

East.Inflexion June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

Excellent content!

LIOR LEVI June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

7:54 the important part 🙂
In my Nokia 7.2 phone I have external 128 MicroSD card.
The phone can see the card only when the card is formated as FAT32.
can I store big file like Windows 10 20H1 Image on this MicroSD card while it's formated as FAT32?

Rotary Wombat June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

So basically in 2020 Windows still using file system from 1993? Guess it's so perfect they just can't imrove it)

Amine Tbaik June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

so if am making a NAS project with a SBC like raspberry pi
i have 2 choices:
– use a linux distro as an os like OMV then chose FAT32 and then share my files to windows computers and mac
– or use a windows as an os and chose exFAT.
both options suck to be honest.
if only linux wasnt stuborn or the major os makers agree on something commun once in their lives for f sake

Alex Hali June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

У автора дикция как на кассетах для обучения английскому языку. Прямо как в школе оказался.

ArtumTsumia June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

I've run into the file size limitation (as well as file path limitation) in the past and it tends to not be handled particularly gracefully. It's something I try to keep in mind, but as far as issues go, they occur rarely enough that I will usually first assume the problem is something else.

Sam Anderson June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

Zed just sounds so meh. Zee sounds better. Meet my boring moron Son, Zed. Meet my enthusiastic energetic Son, Zeke.

Luis Martin del Campo June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

Great video Christopher, I was able to complete an assignment thanks to you.

Andy Smith June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am


Martyn Bush June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

Thanks for the explanation. I have been tinkering with PC's for many years but never taken the trouble to research the different file standards. BUT, seriously dude, you need to look at getting a new hairstyle. 1976 Bill Gates doesn't cut the mustard these days.

Fabio Ricardo June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

Thanks dude

Bionic Man June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

Spent ages trying to copy over some files from my friends Mac formatted Hard Drive – one particular folder just wouldn't copy, no matter what.
Eventually I realized the problem – there was a ":" colon in the folder name, which Windows file systems don't like!

Андрій Литвин June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

Nice haircut man

Ocdrari Drogon June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

Thank you man!

Techtainment noob June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

Thanks for your great explanation currently i'm a noob in everything related to OS but little by little i expect to learn more
You made a very complete video
and also i learnt new vocabulary
journaling file system
standalone media
single board computer
until it hit 4 gigabytes

Restringido a
sistema de archivos de registro
Lado negativo
medios independientes
computadora de una sola placa
hasta que llegue o alcancr 4 gigabytes

Theo Sky7 June 23, 2020 at 8:17 am

Btrfs omitted? In mainline Linux kernel since 2009, default on SUSE, considered by many to be next Linux general default. Adds capabilities ext4 doesn't have (snapshots etc.)

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